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Sunday, 30 December 2012

Tips for Help Keep Your Cell Phone Working at Its Best

Want to keep your phone working as well as it can—and should? We'll bet at least one of these tips from our experts will surprise you.

1. Weak signals kill your battery. Phones use more power when they're trying to access a weak network signal. In fact, just leaving your phone on in area with little or no signal can completely drain your battery in a handful of hours—even if you never touch your phone. And avoid stashing the phone in a crowded purse or briefcase or inside a lower desk drawer: It can be harder for a phone to get a signal in those places.

2. Smart phones need a fresh (re)start. With Facebook, Twitter, and so many other compelling apps to keep you glued to you cell-phone screen, you may be tempted never to turn your phone off. But smart phones, which are actually full-fledged computers, need to be restarted every one or two days to purge memory reserved by programs no longer running and to correct various other glitches that can hinder performance.

3. Smart phones get slower with age. Operating systems are designed and updated for the newest smart phones, with their faster processors, expanded memory, larger displays, and improved cameras. Accepting over-the-air updates to your OS and apps helps stave off obsolescence. But within a few years, your phone could struggle to muster the processing power, memory, or features it needs to make the most of new apps or an upgraded operating system—if it can handle them at all.

4. Video kills your data allowance. It's easy to burn through the 2-gigabyte monthly allowance of typical data plans. For example, a single HD movie could eat up 700 megabytes of data—or more than a third of that 2-gigabyte budget. Other data drainers include streaming music and playing connected games online. Try to use your phone's Wi-Fi connection instead of the data connections when you're doing these things.

5. Skip screen protectors. Many of today's touch screens already come with a protective layer of Gorilla Glass or other hardened material that make scratching them nearly impossible. Some screen protectors reduce glare, but they can also make your display less responsive and harder to see in other ways. And screen protectors, even when properly installed, often develop unsightly air bubbles and annoying scratches of their own.

6. A weak case for cases. Today's smart-phone bodies often include Kevlar, carbon fiber, or other hardened materials that are quite tough. Aftermarket cases may offer a bit of extra protection, but they'll often hinder access or slow the responsiveness of the phone's screen, buttons, and ports that you access frequently.

7. Phone camera zoom lenses really aren't. Unlike standalone cameras, cell phones don't have optical zoom lenses. Instead they come with digital zoom, which enlarges pixels and actually reduces image detail as you zoom in. For those close-up shots, we recommend you move in closer. Also consider trying small, affordable add-on lenses that fit over a smart phone's own tiny lens. They let you get in closer to the action or shoot a wide-angle or fish-eye photo without reducing image quality.

8. Think twice about insurance and extended warranties. It can easily cost $500 to $600 to replace a smart phone. But a recent survey conducted by Consumer Reports found that only 15 percent of those polled bought a new phone because the old one broke, and only 2 percent bought one because their phone was lost or stolen. And the warranties themselves are no bargain: Plans cost $5 to $9 a month and come with a deductible of between $50 to $150. What's more, you might be entitled only to a repaired, refurbished phone rather than a new one. Here's a better idea: Keep your old phone until the new handset's contract ends.

9. Prepaid carriers are great place for smart phones.
The phones offered with prepaid plans used to be just the basics. But some prepaid carriers now offer smart phones. The Samsung Galaxy S III is even available from Metro PCS and the Apple iPhone 5 is available from Cricket—another prepaid company. What's more, two-thirds of Consumer Reports subscribers who switched to prepaid knocked off $20 or more off their monthly bill. Even though you have to pay full price for the phone, you'll save in the long run.

10. Haggling works. Most shoppers don't think to negotiate for a lower cell-phone price, but 17 percent of our cell-phone-buying survey respondents took a shot. Of that group, more than one in four succeeded. The median discount was $54, but a handful knocked $100 or more off the price.

Thursday, 27 December 2012

Teach the baby in the womb

If you are pregnant or have a special interest in the prenatal period, be sure to check out BrillBaby's Prenatal Education section. There are so many ways that you can interact with your baby during pregnancy!

In particular, you can provide auditory stimulation from 20 weeks (when your baby's hearing becomes fully developed), and tactile stimulation from around 28 weeks (when you will start being able to feel the baby through Mom's belly).

Auditory stimulation

  • Use BabyPlus if you can afford it.
  • Play relaxing music to your baby during pregnancy. Classical, jazz, chill-out and songs designed for meditation are all suitable. Avoid music with frenetic beats or dissonant chords.
  • Take some time out of every day to read, talk and sing to your baby during pregnancy.

Tactile stimulation

  • Massage the baby through Mom's belly.
  • Respond to your baby's kicks by pressing gently back.

Optimize your mood

  • Mom, be as calm and happy as possible. Your mood has a direct effect on the chemicals secreted into your bloodstream. Too much cortisol (the stress hormone) is bad for the baby's developing nervous system.
  • Plan some relaxing "couple time" - a gentle hike, trip to the beach, or meal at your favorite restaurant. If possible, go on a babymoon during the second trimester, when moms tend to have the most energy.

Optimize your diet

  • Mom, eat a healthy, balanced and varied diet.
  • Don't take over-the-counter or prescription drugs without your obstetrician's approval.
  • Don't drink alcohol, or keep it to one small measure of wine or beer on very special occasions.
  • Don't smoke or take recreational drugs.
  • Take folic acid (starting from one month before conception) and DHA supplements.

Why teach your baby early?
The period from birth to age eight - and especially, from birth to age three - is a critical time in baby brain development.

This is because the first years of life lay the neurological foundation for intellectual growth into adolescence and adulthood.

From the moment of conception, the neurons (nerve cells) of the brain multiply faster than any other cells in a baby's body.

The rapid pace of baby brain development continues into early childhood: at birth, the brain weighs 25 percent of its adult weight; by age one, 50 percent; by age two, 75 percent; and by age three, 90 percent.

The brain of an adult has over 100 billion neurons, the majority of which were formed during the first five months in the womb! Recent research suggests that new neurons can be created throughout life - but probably only in sufficient numbers to replace those that have died.

Each of the brain's neurons is connected to roughly 5,000 others. In general, the more dendrites (branches between neurons) and synapses (connections between neurons) the brain has, the greater its processing power. More pathways mean information can travel in a number of ways, opening the door to faster and more complex thinking.

This is true in the adult, but not in the infant. Your baby's brain actually has more synapses than yours - but only because it hasn't passed an important developmental stage, known as pruning, in which the brain deletes unneeded neural connections in the interests of organization and efficiency.

"Use it or lose it"

The process of pruning is illustrative of the high plasticity (adaptability) of young brains, which are literally sculpted by the environments in which they are raised. Scientific testing of how exactly experience shapes the brain has led to the theory of "critical periods" - specific time periods in which stimulation must occur, or the chance to develop normal functioning will be lost.

In a now-classic experiment, kittens blindfolded for several months after birth were left unable to see properly once the blindfolds were removed. Their brains had not had the opportunity to develop the neural pathways needed to process visual information. Likewise, babies with cataracts must have them removed within the first few months of life or suffer permanent visual impairment.

Nothing is more disastrous for baby brain development than a dearth of stimulation.

Likewise, a surfeit of appropriate stimulation will produce better-than-average neural circuitry.

In one study, rat pups were placed in one of two environments - an "enriched" one filled with toys and obstacles, or an "impoverished," empty one. After 80 days, the rats that had been stimulated were found to have brains with a heavier cerebral cortex (the part of the brain that controls memory and perception), larger neurons, and more intricate dendritic networks.

The same principle applies to baby brain development in humans. Scientists have discovered, for instance, that certain areas of the brain are larger and more developed in children who play musical instruments than in those who do not. These include the cerebellum, which processes rhythm and timing, and the corpus callosum, which acts as the conduit for communication between the brain's left and right hemispheres - vital for musicians coordinating their right and left hands.

Giving kids a Head Start

Education initiatives such as the US's Head Start and Early Head Start are producing measurable cognitive and emotional benefits in children - benefits that can last into middle and even high school. Some of the Head Start programs, which focus on helping disadvantaged children, have produced boosts in IQ equivalent to eight IQ points. In general, the younger intervention is staged, the more significant and long-lived the effects. Full-day Head Start programs for infants have been shown to produce IQ gains lasting into adolescence.

The question is: why limit such programs to disadvantaged children?

Waiting until school to begin providing consistent intellectual stimulation to a child is no disaster. But in doing so, we miss a unique opportunity to enhance baby brain development.

Saturday, 15 December 2012

The cause of acne in unknown

All of a sudden, you have a zit to zap. A pimple to pop. How, you wonder, did it get there? What went so wrong that your once flawless skin is covered with a red spot or two or three? Blame your yoga mat. Or your cell phone. Or even that pretty new shade of eyeliner you've been wearing. "Acne is a complex medical condition caused by four factors: hormones, inflammation, bacteria, and dead skin cells that clog pores," says dermatologist Jessica Krant, founder of the Art of Dermatology practice in New York. Triggers include "stress, poor sleep, and dietary choices. For some people, chocolate really does cause breakouts; for others, it's greasy foods, or a diet heavy in dairy."

And that's just the beginning of the list. Be alert to these often-sneaky causes of acne:


Zit-causing ingredients could be lurking on your beauty shelf. Unlike most prescriptions, however, you do have control over what you put on your face and hair.

Acne caused by topical creams, lotions, and makeup is known as Acne Cosmetica, and is most common on the face, neck, hairline, and scalp.

If you regularly apply a product to an acne-prone area, it’s possible that it's doing more harm than good. Products that contain mineral oil clog pores, so switch to brands labeled non-comedogenic, which are oil-free, don't strip skin of necessary moisture and nutrients, and don't block pores.

Some people may also go to bed with ointments or oils in their hair that can get on the pillow case and then rub on your face, Fusco says, in which case it’s best to put a clean towel over your pillowcase every night to prevent buildup. Washing that foundation and powder off every night is important too.

Makeup brushes are constantly collecting leftover makeup and gathering bacteria and yeast, which can lead to a type of acne known as Folliculitis. Fusco recommends cleaning makeup brushes once a week to keep them gunk-free and face-friendly.

Cell phones

Cell phones like your iPhone or Android is a cesspool of dirt and bacteria. It's gather all kinds of dirt and bacteria throughout the day, and there's a good chance it'll trigger breakouts on your chin and around your mouth. Wiping down your Smartphone daily with alcohol or Clorox wipes will keep your phone—and your face—clean.


Check your medicine cabinet and tread particularly carefully with prescriptions that emphasize steroids, such as prednisone, cortisone, and hydrocortisone. These can both aggravate and cause acne. Also watch out for lithium, lithium chloride, and certain forms of iodine. "Unfortunately, many of these medications are given for serious conditions, and there are few available substitutes," Krant says. "So people can get stuck in troubling situations, having to take important medication that causes distressing side effects." Keep an open line of communication with your doctor, and make sure he's aware of your concerns.

Yoga mats

Your workout could be making you break out, but it's not the act of exercising that is causing those unsightly spots. Go to class, grab a mat ... and consider all those who have come before you. "You're using a mat other people have been on, and who knows whether they had their feet where your head is," Fusco says. Soon, you'll be dripping with sweat and oil, and rubbing your face against the bacteria on the mat. "That provides a fertile environment for breaking out." The solution? Place a clean towel on the end of the mat where your head and face will be, even if you're using your own personal yoga mat.

Touching your face

Beware of contact acne: "It can appear anywhere you apply repeated or extended pressure on your skin," says dermatologist Ava Shamban, author of Heal Your Skin. "Resting your chin on your hand while you work, pressing your cell phone on your chin, or wearing tight clothing can all contribute to acne." She recommends trying not to touch your face, switching to a headset, and opting for a ponytail holder instead of a headband. And during the summertime, don't sit down in a wet bathing suit: Doing so puts you at risk of developing butt acne.

Avoid touching your face at all costs—even after you wash your hands. "Touching can inflame the skin, and if you're touching the same area, you might get an increase in oil production, so it's three-pronged: it's the bacteria, the inflammation, and the increased production in oil," Fusco says. And don't even think about trying to pop that pimple!


Dead skin blizzard? Not fun, for plenty of reasons. And it doesn't help that dandruff often causes acne, typically in the form of tiny pimples lining the scalp. Using shampoo designed to treat dandruff is helpful, Fusco says. "A lot of people don't like to because of its medicinal nature and smell," she says. "But there are new lines that smell nice and can be used every day." Fusco recommends, for example, Clear Scalp and Hair Beauty Therapy products.


Yes, you need it when you venture into the sun. But make sure it's oil-free and non-comedogenic. Avoid sunscreen with perfume or dyes, and steer clear of spray-on formulas; many of these contain alcohol, which may irritate sensitive skin, Shamban says. Products made with zinc oxide are often more tolerable than those with titanium dioxide.


Changes in environment—humidity, weather, and even minerals or fluoride in water—can trigger breakouts. There's nothing you can do about the heat index, of course. But wash your face with bottled water when you can, and avoid using hotel soaps.


It triggers heightened levels of androgens, hormones that contribute to adulthood breakouts. Stress also releases cortisol and other adrenal steroids that can stimulate the sebaceous glands and lead to acne flare-ups, Shamban says. Though it doesn't always cause new cases of acne, stress tends to worsen matters in those already struggling with the condition. Make sure to get enough sleep, and allot 15 minutes each day to relaxing or doing something you enjoy. Squeeze in some exercise, too, since research suggests it helps deflate stress.

Hair-styling products

It's called pomade acne: Breakouts caused by hair gel or any other styling staple. These cause oil to seep onto your forehead, trapping acne-causing bacteria in your pores. Apply products with your hands, keeping them away from the hairline, and wipe your skin with facial cleanser to remove any remaining traces. Be wary of bangs, too, since they bring hair products directly against your forehead.

Chin straps

Bikers and athletes who wear helmets are prone to this type of acne, caused when straps rub against the skin. "Wash your face before and after putting it on, and keep the strap clean," Fusco says. She also recommends using an antibacterial pad to wipe straps down before and after use.

Anti-aging creams

Think you're doing your skin a favor? Think again. Many of these contain retinol, which stimulates cell turnover, increasing the number of acne-like lesions. "Too much turnover can cause a traffic jam in the skin layers," Krant says. Though Retin-A, which contains retinol, is sometimes prescribed to treat acne, experts warn that many people find it to be a skin irritant; plus, anti-aging creams tend to be oily. "Always use these sparingly, and ideally, under a dermatologist's instruction."


A study published the Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology found that boys who had two or more servings of milk a day were the most likely to have acne. Researchers believe this applies to older men, too.

“Milk contains many biological products apart from protein and nutrients, like insulin growth factor-1, which is similar to insulin, and alpha reduced sex hormones,” explains study author Clement Adebamowo, M.D., professor at the University of Maryland. “These molecules are designed to enhance the growth and development of the calves, which can cause a biological response in the person who drinks it,” he says. One response: Increased sebum production, an oily substance that can clog pores. Researchers aren’t sure why some people have this reaction while others are fine.

Just one cup of milk can cause breakouts, says Adnan Nasir, M.D. and Men’s Health dermatology advisor. If you break out frequently, opt for almond milk, instead. Try this for 2 months and see if it makes a difference, Dr. Nasir recommends.


Researchers gave young men a face cleanser and assigned them to one of two 12-week diets: Either an eating plan high in carbohydrates, or one high in protein, vegetables, and whole grains. Though both groups saw a decrease in the number pimples, the high-protein subjects had double the drop.

The researchers believe increased insulin can cause inflammation in the skin, leading to breakouts, but more research still needs to be done. “Processed foods could be another factor,” says Alan Aragon, M.S. and Men’s Health nutrition advisor. Lay low on the sugar and switch to whole grains to be safe (solid advice for even smooth-skinned men).

Not Enough Omega-3s

A 250 mg supplement of EPA—the kind of omega-3 found in sardines and anchovies—reduced the number of pimples in a study published in Lipids in Health and Disease. The total lesion count among five people dropped from 63 to 40 after 2 months, presumably because of reduced inflammation.

“Inflammatory chemicals increase the production of sebum,” says study coauthor Alan Logan, N.D., an independent researcher. Omega-3s prevent these chemicals from making sebum, which is known to cause acne, he says.

Using Toothpaste to "Treat" a Zit

Contrary to the popular belief that toothpaste will stop a breakout in its tracks, certain toothpastes can actually cause you to develop acne or an acne-like eruption called perioral dermatitis on the lower third of your face. Fluoride and other whitening and anti-cavity ingredients, especially sodium pyrophosphate, are quite abrasive, Fusco says, and could potentially burn the skin, cause irritation, and initiate breakouts.

Tuesday, 11 December 2012

Seafood Good for Your Sex Life

Is seafood the aphrodisiac it's cracked up to be, or is someone telling fish tales?

It appears that any seafood rich in omega-3 fatty acids may indeed help put you in the mood, according to RealAge experts Mehmet Oz, MD, and Michael Roizen, MD. Here's how it helps light your fire.

Bringing Sexy Salmon Back
The omega-3s in fish like salmon and herring may boost sex-related hormones that increase desire, write Oz and Roizen in their best-selling book YOU: On a Diet. Same goes for the zinc in oysters, crab, lobster, and shrimp.

Shrimp, High in iodine, shrimp and other types of seafood are vital to the thyroid gland, which is vital for energy.

Oysters! Myth has it that oysters are the food of love. Science may agree. Just two to three oysters deliver a full day's supply of zinc, a mineral critical for normal functioning of the male reproductive system. Scientists are divided over reports that sperm counts have declined over the last 50 years and that environmental factors are to blame. Nutritional deficiencies do seem to be the cause of certain cases of low testosterone. Getting adequate zinc is sometimes the answer (11 mg per day is recommended for men; more than 40 mg can pose risks). In one trial, 22 men with low testosterone levels and sperm counts were given zinc every day for 45 to 50 days. Testosterone levels and sperm counts rose.

Other Foods that stimulate sexual:

  • Chocolate. Not only does chocolate provide a jolt of caffeine, the plant has a flower that looks like sex organs.
  • Ginger. This root reportedly increases blood flow to the genitals in both men and women.
  • Olives. Green ones are believed to make men more virile, while black ones increase women's sex drive.
  • Tomatoes. Known as "love apples" by Puritans, they have a reputation as a sexual stimulant. 

Tips: More Super Strategies

Some foods that resemble anatomical parts (think asparagus and artichoke hearts) have been linked to a stronger libido, too. But because it's hard to do a proper clinical study on this theme, we'll just pass along the limited facts and leave the rest to your imagination. In the meantime, here are some better-sex strategies with a bit more research behind them:
  • Exercise regularly for better blood flow.
  • Take it easy on the alcohol. Too much can shut down sexual response.
  • Get rid of that gut. Besides helping you feel better about your body, losing weight if you're overweight can also reduce the risk of sexual problems like Erectile Dysfunction.

Thursday, 29 November 2012

Firefox with Bing search

Microsoft announced that it has teamed up with the Mozilla team to release a new version of Firefox with Bing.

When Firefox 4 was released last year, it added Bing as one of the available options in the browser's built-in search box. Google remained the default, but Bing became easily accessible to users who prefer Microsoft's search engine. Microsoft and Mozilla also took the opportunity to establish a revenue-sharing agreement around the search integration.

"Mozilla and Bing are pleased to make available Download Firefox With Bing, a customized version of Firefox that sets Bing as the default search engine in the search box and AwesomeBar and makes the default home page," Mozilla said in a statement on Wednesday. "Existing Firefox users can also make these changes by installing the Bing Search for Firefox Add-on," it added.

Mozilla also releases customized versions of its Firefox Browser for different partners and geographies. There are nearly 20 customized versions of Firefox distributed globally by partners including Bing, United Internet, Twitter, Yahoo and Yandex, Mozilla said.

Much of the recent news surrounding the browser has been tied to mobile, however. Mozilla recently showed off Firefox for tablets, in which the "Awesomebar" (above) retains its tabbed menu, but on the left-hand side.

The next iteration of Mozilla's Firefox for Android will also include a native UI rather than the company's XUL implementation, Mozilla recently said, a change that is intended to produce much faster startup times.

For Mozilla, the partnership with Microsoft is certainly a good deal. Firefox is still the most popular browser.

Wednesday, 21 November 2012

10 Foods for a Maximum Orgasm

If you are still searching for the right ingredients to constitute a 'sex-friendly' platter, here's a low down on foods that facilitate the Big O!

Climaxing issues keeping you off sex? Hitting the so-called 'Big O' remains a dream for you? Well, a major reason for your poor sexual prowess can be what lies on your platter.

Nutritionist, Ishi Khosla explains, "Everything that can be summed up as good sex depends to a great extent on your body's blood circulation, which is made or marred by the food that you consume. Food that facilitates the proper pumping of blood in the body adds to your sexual prowess."

So, if you are still searching for the right ingredients to constitute a 'sex-friendly' platter, here's the low down on foods that facilitate the Big O!

1. Go green
And you thought, Popeye, the sailor man gulped cans of cans of spinach just like that! Well, it won't be wrong if we tag spinach as a natural Viagra. This green leafy vegetable is loaded with sexual benefits. "It is rich in Vitamin E, which is a major catalyst in the production of sex hormones in the body. It is also rich in manganese, which facilitates the production of the female hormone estrogen. A deficiency of magnesium also affects a woman's fertility levels," informs nutritionist Aishwarya Rajan. "Green leafy veggies are also loaded with zinc, which is known for its libido and sperm production qualities men," holds dietician Charu Dua.

2. Seeds of fertility
Seeds like flaxseeds, pumpkin seeds, soybeans, chickpeas and sunflower seeds etc. are again friends of sexual hormones. "Consuming one tablespoon of flaxseed every day helps to increase the testosterone level in the body. These seeds are rich in Omega 3 fatty acids, a drop in which affects hormone levels leading to a plummeting sex drive. Pumpkin seeds are also rich in zinc which is a mineral needed to produce testosterone," suggests Delhi-based nutritionist Sanjana Saikia.

3. S for Sea-food
If you have an aversion towards the aqua-species, you better start loving them as they guarantee a smooth sailing sex drive. Be it fish or oysters, they contain the wonder sex drug in them! "Fish is rich in Omega-3 fatty acids, which fires up your metabolism, keeping you fresh. It's also found to boost the hormone dopamine that lights up the brain's pleasure system. Besides, it even contains Vitamin B that is linked to fertility. Oysters known for their aphrodisiacal traits are the richest source of zinc which nourish the prostate gland and boosts testosterone production in men," explains Aishwarya.

4. Go nutty
"All kinds of nuts provide one with energy that's directly proportional to your stamina while having sex," suggests Sanjana. So, feel free to consume your daily dose of nuts, including almonds, pistachios, walnuts, groundnuts etc. After all, stamina and energy are the driving force behind a satisfying sex life.

5. Fruity Pleasure
All fruits, especially those rich in vitamin C can be vital in sexual gratifications. "The body needs vitamin C to keep the sexual organs fine tuned. Tests reveal that consuming 500-1,000 milligrams of vitamin C in a day increases the number and quality of sperm produced," holds nutritionist Aishwarya. Some fruits which fall in this category include citrus fruits, specially kiwi, blackcurrants and strawberries.

6. Spice it up!
The right kind of spices not only spice up your palette, but also your bedroom. "Chilli pepper, red chillies and ginger perk up blood circulation," says Sanjana. So, dig into some spicy food when spicing up things between the sheets.

7. Dark chocolate
You've got another reason to fall in love with chocolates, specially the darker varirties. Studies reveal that women who eat chocolate daily lead more sexually satisfying sex lives. "Chocolate contains a chemical called phenethylamine that triggers feelings of relaxation, intoxication and pleasure. It releases mood-boosting, stress-reducing serotonin and stimulates physical contact desires and lowers inhibitions," explains endocrinologist Dr Pankaj Aggarwal. So, shun those weighty issues for a while and don't shy away from gorging upon a piece or two of dark chocolate daily.

8. Bananas
Bananas are a great sex food. "Bananas are ideal to give you endurance in the bedroom as they are a rich source of vitamin B that converts carbohydrates into energy. It also helps your body to produce sex hormones such as testosterone, "suggests Aggarwal. Having a banana a few hours before getting into action can keep you pepped up!

9. Olive oil
Orgasm worries in women find an answer in olive oil, which triggers the production of the testosterone hormone. "A lack of this hormone can lead to lack of desire and sexual pleasure and an inability to achieve an orgasm. So, be liberal with monounsaturated fats like olive oil," suggests Charu.

10. Garlic
Though, you'll have to take special care of your breathe before you get into some steamy action after having this wonder sex booster, but a "regular consumption of garlic in food can bring a marked difference in your sexual prowess," suggests Sanjana.


Monday, 19 November 2012

Cataract and Surgery

Next week my mother would undergo Cataract Surgery. I find the little facts as general knowledge....

A cataract is a clouding that develops in the crystalline lens of the eye or in its envelope, varying in degree from slight to complete opacity and obstructing the passage of light. Early in the development of age-related cataract the power of the lens may be increased, causing near-sightedness (myopia), and the gradual yellowing and opacification of the lens may reduce the perception of blue colours. Cataracts typically progress slowly to cause vision loss and are potentially blinding if untreated. The condition usually affects both the eyes, but almost always one eye is affected earlier than the other.

A senile cataract, occurring in the aged, is characterized by an initial opacity in the lens, subsequent swelling of the lens and final shrinkage with complete loss of transparency. Moreover, with time the cataract cortex liquefies to form a milky white fluid in a Morgagnian cataract, which can cause severe inflammation if the lens capsule ruptures and leaks. Untreated, the cataract can cause phacomorphic glaucoma. Very advanced cataracts with weak zonules are liable to dislocation anteriorly or posteriorly. Such spontaneous posterior dislocations (akin to the historical surgical procedure of couching) in ancient times were regarded as a blessing from the heavens, because some perception of light was restored in the cataractous patients.

Cataract Surgery

Cataract surgery is considered one of the most effective medical procedures today. In fact, more than 3 million cataract surgeries are performed each year in the United States alone, with more than 981 percent of first-time cataract procedures considered "successes," meaning no complications. 

Artificial Intraocular Lens Standard Cataract Surgery
Standard cataract surgery involves replacing the natural lens of the eye with an artificial intraocular lens (IOL). This is a permanent solution to restore vision, although patients may still need to wear glasses for astigmatism and presbyopia.

Artificial Intraocular Lens Custom Cataract Surgery

There is also a custom artificial intraocular lens cataract surgery which uses advanced technology to produce what is considered to be premium lenses. These premium lenses can eliminate or greatly reduce astigmatism and presbyopia. Patients can see better than they have in years.

Cataract Laser Surgery

Standard cataract surgeries were performed manually by surgeons using a blade for some parts of the procedure. There is always a margin of error using this type of surgery. There is now new technology which allows eye surgeons to use a laser to create incisions which are up to ten times more precise than using blades. The LenSx is the first FDA cleared custom cataract laser.

Surgical Guidance System

There is a new system referred to as ORA (Optiwave Refractive Analysis). This system is used in custom cataract surgery to analyze the power and position of the implanted IOLs. In the past, eye surgeons took measurements before the procedure. They were often not as precise because of unknown factors that happened during the surgery. The ORA system fine tunes the lens prescription during the procedure.

Risks and Complications of Cataract Surgery

The following list, while not comprehensive, provides some of the potential complications which could occur. These may develop during or after cataract surgery while you are still under your doctor's care and would be addressed immediately. If any of these issues arise after your surgery, contact your doctor right away.

Secondary cataract.
Occurring after about 30 percent of surgeries,1 a secondary cataract happens when cells have grown under the lens and the posterior capsule holding the IOL has become cloudy, blurring your vision. Your doctor will then use a YAG laser to create a small hole in the membrane for light to pass through. This is a painless outpatient procedure your doctor can perform quickly.

Tearing of the posterior capsule.
During cataract surgery, the natural lens is removed from the posterior capsule and replaced with an artificial IOL. The capsule can sometimes tear during this process. When this happens, the physician will repair the vitreous body that has leaked into the capsular bag,   capsular bag: A thin membrane that holds the eye's natural lens.   and seal it off.

Swelling inside the eye that is unrelated to infection is usually minor and can easily be treated with anti-inflammatory drops after surgery.

Incision leak.
Sometimes a small leak in the incision in the cornea can occur. Such a leak increases the chances of infection, and your doctor may apply a contact lens or pressure bandage over your eye to decrease the chance of infection. In some cases, the incision must be closed with a stitch.

Visual effects.
As a result of the multifocality, some visual effects (halos or radial lines around point sources of light at night) may also be expected due to the superposition of focused and unfocused multiple images. A reduction in contrast sensitivity may also be experienced by some patients, especially in low lighting conditions such as driving at night.

Cystoid macular edema.
 As long as 3 months after cataract surgery, or as soon as a few weeks, the tissues of the macula may swell. If this happens, your central vision will be blurry, and your doctor will most likely give you a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug.

Bleeding inside the eye during cataract surgery is extremely rare, because the incision is placed on the edge of the cornea, which contains no blood vessels. If it does occur, it will likely occur on the surface of the eye. In this case, the surgeon will usually cauterize the area and the bleeding stops.

Intraocular Infection.
Developing an infection after cataract surgery is extremely rare, occurring only once in several thousand surgeries.1 Most cataract surgeons administer antibiotic drops before, during, and after surgery to minimize the risk. Endophthalmitis, an inflammation of the eye triggered by infection, is also very rare and more common in people with compromised immune systems, which includes patients with diabetes. For tips on managing diabetes, click here.

Pronounced astigmatism.
Sometimes swelling of the cornea or tight stitches (if stitches are used) can distort the shape of the cornea, causing astigmatism. Swelling will reduce during healing, and the astigmatism will generally go away on its own. Or if stitches were used, once they are removed, the cornea will usually relax back to its natural shape.

Retinal detachment.
If you are extremely nearsighted, you may be more prone to retinal detachment during cataract or any other eye surgery. Symptoms include flashing lights, new floaters, gradual shading of vision as though a curtain was being drawn, and quick detachment of your sharp, central vision. If you experience any of these symptoms, call your doctor immediately.

An extremely small number of cataract surgery patients develop secondary glaucoma after cataract surgery. Secondary glaucoma is usually temporary and can develop when inflammation or bleeding occurs during the surgery. In most cases, glaucoma medications can be used to help control the increased intraocular pressure, but sometimes, laser or other surgery is required.

Bruising or black eye.
If your doctor used an injection to numb your eye, it is possible that you may experience some bruising around your eye. This is temporary and will go away on its own.

Decentered intraocular lens.
Rarely, the IOL placed in the eye can become displaced a week to a month later. If this happens, you would experience blurred vision, glare, double vision, or fluctuating vision (when the eye sees the edge of the IOL, causing focused and unfocused images). This is sometimes due to torn zonules during surgery or through an accident involving the eye. Your doctor will either reposition the lens or remove and replace it with another.

Other adverse reactions that have been associated with the implantation of intraocular lenses are: hypopyon, acute corneal decompensation, pupillary block, and secondary surgical intervention (including but not limited to lens repositioning, biometry error, visual disturbances or patient dissatisfaction).
Source of knowledge:


Sunday, 18 November 2012

8 steps to fight fatigue

 Is it the middle of the morning or afternoon, and you can barely think of anything else but catching a little more shut eye? Even simple projects or tasks can sometimes seem incredibly hard to manage. You may even have to work to summon up enough energy to stay alert for your drive home from work.

We often hear people complaining about tiredness or fatigue in their daily lives. This condition has become common due to our hectic lifestyle, work habits, stress and environmental pollution.

Overcoming fatigue is something that may seem like an insurmountable task without the right information and guidance. Below are some basic steps to fight fatigue and keep tiredness at bay.

  1. Don’t skip breakfast.
Eat foods with complex carbohydrates (whole grains), high fiber, protein and good fats. Energy giving foods are needed to energies your body. What you eat for breakfast determines how you will feel for the rest of the day.
  1. Stay hydrated.
Staying hydrated is essential to maintain energy. Drink at least two liters of water each day. Remember, simple dehydration is a frequent cause of fatigue. It takes water to transport nutrients, to digest food, create blood, and move muscles, etc.
  1. Incorporate physical exercise into your daily routine. While you think exercise may seem like just another way to drain what little energy you have, the effects of exercise actually help beat fatigue. Exercise boosts endorphins, which make us feel more energized, and increases oxygen levels in the blood. Exercise regularly about five times a week, for an hour.

  1. Take up yoga. Yoga has shown to increase energy by relaxing mind and body enabling the practitioner to feel ‘energized’.

  1. Give your body fuel. As you become more active, you will need more food – you need healthy, energy-laden food that will jump start the next phase of your day, not weight it down. Learn how to eat healthily.

  1. Get enough sleep. Fatigue can be shown if you are having sleep problems. Try to get seven hours sleep each night. If insomnia is a problem, use appropriate nutrients, relaxing herbs, and meditation to encourage restorative sleep.

  1. Seek medical advice. If making lifestyle changes such as sleeping and eating better, does not work, see a doctor and tell him or her that you have trouble with fatigue. Various medical conditions can cause fatigue and tiredness too.

  1. Have regular check-ups. Fatigue causes may also come from underlying condition of certain illnesses such as heart disease, insomnia, anemia, diabetes, obesity, high blood pressure, and hyperthyroidism.
It is important to these medical conditions therefore seeing a doctor is advised. They are the right person to tell you why and how to fight fatigue causes by these conditions.

Best fruits for increasing energy.


Top vegetable for increasing energy.

    Brussel Sprouts

Great energy snacks.

    Peanut Butter
    Soy Nuts
    Trail Mix

Medicare vs. Medicaid

Medicare vs. Medicaid

Though people are aware that there are two government-run health-care programs available, the terms “Medicaid” and “Medicare” are often confused or used interchangeably. The two terms sound extremely similar, making it easy to switch them, but these two programs are very different. Each is regulated by its own set of laws and policies, and each is appropriate for different sets of people. It is important to understand the distinction between these programs as well as the details of each so that each person can select the program that is right for his or her situation.

For retirees navigating the government’s senior health care system for the first time, it can seem confusing. Let’s take a look at the two big health insurance providers: Medicare and Medicaid. Americans aged 65 or older are eligible for Medicare. There are two main plans under Medicare, Plan A and Plan B. Typically, Plan A covers hospital insurance and Plan B covers medical insurance (i.e. doctor visits). Plan B may come with a small monthly fee.  Medicaid is for citizens not qualified to receive Medicare. Unlike Medicare, Medicaid is distributed through federal-state programs for citizens of low-income. Medicaid can be extended not only to cover the elderly, but it may also cover children, parents of eligible children, pregnant women, and people with disabilities who cannot otherwise afford insurance.


Medicare is a policy designed for citizens aged 65 and older who have difficulty covering the expenses related to medical care and treatments. This program provides support to senior citizens and their families who need financial assistance in order to fulfill the costs of their medical needs. Persons who are under the age of 65 but are suffering from particular disabilities may also be eligible for Medicare benefits. Each case is evaluated based on eligibility requirements and the details of the program. Patients in the final stage of renal disorders can also apply for the benefits of a Medicare policy.

Medicaid, on the other hand, is a program that combines the efforts of the state and federal governments in order to assist families in low-income groups to cover the expenses of health care. This program aids families in paying for major hospitalizations and treatments as well as routine medical care. This program was designed to help those unable to afford quality medical care and who do not have other forms of medical coverage due to strained finances.


In most situations, eligibility for Medicare is based on the age of the applicant. A person must be a citizen of the United States and 65 years of age or older to qualify. Any US citizen or permanent resident that is at least 65 years old is eligible to apply for Medicare. Premiums and specific Medicare plan eligibility will depend on how many years of Medicare taxes have been paid. The exception to this is people who are younger than 65 but have certain documented disabilities. Generally, people who receive Medicare benefits are also receiving some form of Social Security benefits. Medicare benefits can also be extended to a person who is eligible for the Social Security disability program and is also the widow(er) age 50 or older or the child of a person who worked a minimum length of time at a government job and paid Medicare taxes.

Eligibility for Medicaid is based primarily on income. states that most adults who are in the low-income group who are not able to access affordable health insurance through their job are ineligible for Medicaid. The Affordable Care Act, however, has extended coverage to fill in the health-care gaps for those with the lowest incomes, establishing a minimum income threshold that is constant across the country.

For the majority of adults under the age of 65, eligibility is an income lower than 133 percent of the FPL (Federal Poverty Level). According to, this amount is approximately $14,500 for an individual and $29,700 for a family of four. Children are afforded higher income levels for Medicaid and CHIP (Children’s Health Insurance Program) based on the individual standards of their state of residence. There are also special programs within the Medicaid program that extend coverage to groups in need of immediate assistance, such as pregnant women and those with pressing medical needs.

There are several subcategories of the Medicare program that offer coverage for different aspects of health care. Medicare Part A, also referred to as hospital insurance, is the subcategory that is offered without premiums to all individuals who meet the eligibility requirements and have paid (or are the spouse of a person who has paid) Medicare taxes for a minimum of 40 calendar quarters in the span of their life. Those who do not reach eligibility to receive Part A premium-free may have the option of purchasing this part. Part A is associated with skilled nursing care, hospital services, hospice services, and home health care. Medicare Part B is considered the medical insurance portion. It offers coverage for outpatient hospital care, physician services, and other such services traditionally covered by health insurance plans.

The benefits that are covered by Medicaid vary by the issuing state, but there are some benefits that are included in every program. These include laboratory and X-ray services, inpatient and outpatient hospital services, family planning services such as birth control, nurse-midwife services, health screenings for children and applicable medical treatments, nursing facility services for adults, and surgical dental services for adults.

Friday, 16 November 2012

Symptoms of Swine flu

Symptoms of Swine flu or H1N1

Swine influenza or swine flu is a respiratory disease found in pigs and is caused by the type A influenza virus.

It is rare for swine flu to spread to humans and usually requires direct contact between a human and an infected pig and is then spread from human to human.

There is a reduction in the cases of swine flu. Many a time's swine flu is confused with other ailments. However, it is very important that one should recognize the symptoms of swine flu at the earliest. This will surely help in reducing the effect of swine flu on a person and his family. Given below is the list of symptoms


According to National Health Survey, there is a consistent and a sudden rise in the body temperature. This is the most typical and common symptoms of this type of flu. A medical thermometer should be used, if one feels feverish. The temperature must be checked regularly. Therefore, one must have a good thermometer at home.

Sudden cough

A sudden and a bad cough appears without any reason. This is also a common symptom of that flu. One should always cough into a napkin and then dispose it off.


One experiences a bad headache, which is similar to the headache during flu or cold. Thus it makes people stay in bed.


A person with this flu becomes unusually fatigued or tired. When this symptom is combined with other key symptoms, it indicates that one has swine flu.

Chills and fever

Many a times, it happens that a person shivers for a minute and is roasting hot the next minute. This is another symptom of this type of flu that accompanies. Thus one should call the doctor and get it diagnosed.

Joint and limb pains

One experiences pain in the joints and limbs and that is similar to the pain, that one experiences during a regular flu. All the joints, arms and legs ache and become very heavy. If these things are experienced by a person, he should immediately consult a doctor for checking that flu.

Upset stomach

Diarrhea wit h a tender stomach is another common symptom of flu that one may experience. If this symptom is persistent, one must call the flu hotline.

Runny nose and a sore throat

Many a times common cold and allergic rhinitis causes a runny nose. But when sore throat accompanies a runny nose, it is time that a person should get his temperature checked. There are high chances of swine flu.

Loss of appetite

Loss of appetite can be noticed in a person with swine flu.

Thus if these symptoms of flu are being noticed by a person, he should immediately consult a doctor. Most commonly swine flu is due to H1N1 influenza subtype but sometimes it may be a result of other subtypes, such as H1N2, H3N1, and H3N2.

Monday, 12 November 2012

Effective Skin Care Tips for Women

It is seldom put in these exact words but women are obsessed about their skins and how they look. All women hope to be the first to find that tube or bottle of skin care chemical that will be an elixir for all skin problems from wrinkles to spots and even acne. While aging is a natural process that cannot be reversed, adverts and marketing gimmicks of before and after have taken women to extremes trying to attain certain looks. The truth however is that the skin is best taken care of naturally. All those expensive bottles and complicated instructions for using chemicals are just businesses that earn money. Here are a few tips that will give you beautiful healthy skin.

Keep your skin safe from harsh sunlight

Everyone must have heard by now that the sun is both an enemy and a friend to our skins. It is good source of vitamin but harsh sunlight has ultraviolet rays that have been found to be cancer causing. The sun is hottest and therefore most harmful between 10a.m and 2 o'clock in most countries and if you are out during these times, you should ideally wear a floppy hat to protect the skin on your face. A light throw on scarf can be used to protect the arms and neck from direct heat.

Have a healthy lifestyle

Needless to say, skin care must include a healthy lifestyle each and every day. Bad habits such as smoking cigarettes and drinking plenty of alcohol impair the skin greatly. For the skin to look and even feel healthy there must be proper circulation of blood in the epidermal cells. Smoking inhibits this and alcohol dehydrates the body leaving the cells deprived of not just water but also oxygen. Drink plenty of water to hydrate yourself often and keep away from drugs.

Deal with stressful situations in a healthy manner

Stress is number one cause of bad-looking skin not just in women but also in men. Stress affects the entire body right from the brain to the nails on our toes. It causes one to adopt poor eating habits and forget to maintain proper hygiene. Dealing with stress before it takes a toll is the best way to go about this. Seek help for major issues. If it is a minor problem, engage in exercises or talk to a friend to relieve your brain of some of the stress.

Keep your makeup set as clean as possible

Classical mistake made by women; sharing make up kits. Sponges, brushes and any other implements used on the face are as personal as toothbrushes. Never share them because you may transfer a skin problem from one face to another. Keep your makeup and cosmetics if any in a clean cabinet designated for just that. If they take too long, throw them out and start on new batches. Sponges in powder packs gather dirt and skin fragments over time. Ensure that you change these as often as possible.

With these simple and not-so-costly skin care tips, you can take great care of your skin and make sure it looks as great as it naturally should. Do not worry too much about wrinkles; they add depth and personality to your face.

Perform an online search to learn the best tips about skin care. Learn why your skin is not as expensive to take care of as you think.

Benefits of Chia Seeds for Health

These little seeds are incredibly nutritious, with significant concentrations of protein, fiber and several essential minerals. Let’s take a moment to look at the health benefits of chia seeds. Chia seeds are a nutritionally dense food.

Chia Seeds in general benefit for health
They have high amounts of:-

Omega 3 fatty acids.

Protein, and this protein is complete, containing all essential amino acids.


Vitamin Bs


Yet they are low in calories and gluten free

Chia seeds are easy to digest. People who regularly eat chia seeds as part of their diet have reported the following health benefits

Increased energy

Improved mood

More sustained energy levels

Improved concentration and clearer thinking

A decrease in aches and pains

A decrease in food cravings and less need to eat between meals

A feeling of well being

Better regularity

Supple, smoother skin

Glossy hair and stronger nails

Research has shown chia seeds may be of benefit in improving cardiovascular health. This includes high blood pressure and high cholesterol. Research has also shown chia seeds can benefit brain and neurological functions, and arthritic conditions.

Chia seeds digest slowly. This tends to stabilize blood sugar – which can be of help to people with type 2 diabetes.

Chia seeds contain high levels of calcium, together with boron, which is of great benefit to bone health. For example, one tablespoon of chia seeds contain as much calcium as two glasses of milk.

Chia seeds can also prolong hydration and help retain electrolytes which makes them a great help to athletes, especially runners.

The high fiber of chia seeds, both soluble and insoluble, is a gentle way to maintain bowel health and promote regularity.

As you can see, chia seeds health benefits are wide ranging, and they are a great addition to a healthy diet. The fact that they can assist in weight loss and weight management is an added bonus.

let us see more clearly what benefit of chia seed

Benefit 1 – Chia seeds are high in protein

Chia seeds are loaded with protein – at roughly four grams per one ounce serving of seeds, they’re packed with twice the amount of protein as any other seed or grain.  Best of all, the type of protein found in chia seeds is a “complete” protein, which means that it includes all nine of the amino acids that are required for basic biological functions without needing to be supplemented with another food.

Benefit 2 – Chia seeds contain large amounts of Omega-3 fatty acids
Omega-3 oil is usually thought of as "that healthy stuff in fish". We’re all told to eat more fish and take fish oil supplements in order to boost our consumption of Omega-3 fatty acids (the molecules that play a vital role in brain function and human development) – but who really wants to sit down to a big plate of salmon each night?!

In fact, a two tablespoon serving of chia seeds contains over five grams of Omega-3 fatty acids, which is more than five times what you’ll find in a standard fish oil supplement serving and eight times more than that plate of salmon mentioned above.  Incorporating this small portion of seeds into your diet is easy to do, and can help reduce inflammation throughout your body, as well as reduce your risk of heart disease, diabetes and other chronic conditions.

Chia is the richest plant-source of this healthy oil. By weight, chia contains more omega 3 than salmon, and it still tastes like whatever you want! Omega 3 oil is important in heart and cholesterol health. It's also recently been targeted as a weight-loss helper. USA Weekend magazine also reports on a study where overweight dieters who included omega 3s in their eating plan lost 2 more pounds monthly than the control group, who did not.

Benefit 3- Chia seeds help prevent diverticulitis / diverticulosis
With the abundance of over-processed foods and white flour on the market today, rich sources of fiber are harder to come by. These foods of convenience have contributed to the rise of diverticulitis. Irregularity is a big factor in this risky condition. To help ensure regularity, you need plenty of soluble and insoluble fiber in your diet. If you don't want to eat celery, and whole-grain everything...or piles of bran flakes, the Chia Seed is here to help. Each seed is coated with soluble fibers which aid its gelling action. The exterior of the seed is protected by insoluble fiber. The insoluble fiber is unable to be digested (it does not contribute any calories, or break down) so instead, it helps keep food moving smoothly through the digestive process. Soluble fiber, and the gel coating of the seed keeps the colon hydrated and ensures the easy movement of food.

Benefit 4 – Chia seeds help to balance blood sugar

The body’s regulation of insulin and blood sugar levels is a finely tuned process – one that’s often thrown out of whack by high stress levels, low amounts of exercise and a modern diet that’s high in refined sugars and processed foods.  Serious fluctuations in these hormone levels can lead to diabetes, a condition in which the body’s insulin production mechanism no longer functions properly to filter glucose from the bloodstream.

Given that diabetes can lead to serious complications over time, managing blood sugar levels is crucial whether or not you’ve developed this condition.  Fortunately, the combination of soluble and insoluble fiber in chia seeds helps to slow the conversion of ingested starches to sugars, resulting in steadier, healthier levels of blood sugar over time.

Benefit 5 – Chia seeds contain large amounts of vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants
It doesn’t get more “super food” than this.  Nutritional research has found that chia seeds contain important vitamins, minerals and anti-oxidants found in much higher percentages than other seeds, nuts, grains and other foods commonly used today.  For example, at 205 milligrams, two tablespoons of chia seeds contains roughly five times the amount of calcium found in milk!

In addition, chia seeds are good sources of boron (a mineral that’s essential for transferring calcium to your bones), phosphorus, manganese, potassium and sodium.  All of these compounds play a vital role in ensuring your health and well-being, making chia seeds a quick and effective way to get the nutrition you need to live better!

Benefit 6- Chia seeds give you feel more energized all day long
Don't want to feel like taking an afternoon nap? Your energy levels have a lot to do with what you eat. Chia is one of nature's highest plant-based sources of complete protein. Usually protein from items like peanut butter and some beans are incomplete, meaning you have to combine them with other foods to get the full benefit. Not Chia though, it's protein is complete to raise your energy levels. The combination of complete protein, vitamins, minerals and blood-sugar balancing gel all work together to make sure you have steady, never jittery energy.

Benefit 7 – Chia seeds can help you lose weight without starving
Too many people today struggle with obesity – a condition that’s not only unpleasant to deal with, but also potentially deadly if the case is severe enough to result in complications.  People with a higher percentage of body fat are at a higher risk for many serious conditions, including heart disease, high blood pressure, diabetes and stroke.

Unfortunately, though the research is conclusive that obesity leads to diminished life expectancy and quality of life, losing this excess weight is easier said than done.  However, chronic dieters now have another tool in their weight loss arsenal – chia seeds!

As you might expect, a substance that’s high in protein, fiber, vitamins and minerals makes an excellent weight loss aid.  Because chia seeds contain a substantial amount of fiber, you’ll feel fuller for longer after eating them, and because they can help to level out blood sugar, you’ll experience fewer of the “crashes” that lead you to seek out sweets and other unhealthy foods and beverages.  Heck, even the extra boost of energy chia seeds provide can help you to lose weight, as you’ll finally have the energy to get your daily exercise in when you add this potent snack to your diet.

Obviously, chia seeds on their own won’t automatically cause you to lose weight – especially if you “chase” them with excess carbs, sweets and other unhealthy foods.  However, when used sensibly, chia seeds can support your weight loss efforts by helping you to feel more satisfied and less prone to indulging dietary cravings in the long run.

Ovarian Cancer

Ovarian cancer presents numerous symptoms. Since the affected ovaries are located on the abdominal area, it’s understandable that it presents symptoms on this area like bloating and feeling of being full even after eating light meals. However, there are ovarian cancer symptoms like leg pain that are taken for granted by women since it’s far from the ovaries. 

Ovarian cancer (malignancy of the ovaries) is the fifth most common female cancer. In the United States, there will be an estimated 22,280 women that will be diagnosed with ovarian cancer in 2012, according to statistics from the National Cancer Institute.

In the U.K., the number of women affected by ovarian cancer in 2008 was around 6,500, according to the charity Ovarian Cancer Action. This amounts to an average of 18 British women being diagnosed every day.
These figures translate to a 1 in 54 chance of getting ovarian cancer in a woman’s lifetime. The majority of cases occur in those over 50.

Types of ovarian cancer are:

Epithelial Tumors – These are on the surface of the ovaries. This is the most common type and accounts for 90 percent of cases.
Borderline Tumors – These are "low malignancy" tumors also found on the surface of the ovaries. Because they are low malignancy, this type of cancer can be treated with surgery alone.
Germ Cell Tumors – This is cancer of the germ cells that would have become eggs. This accounts for 5-10 percent of ovarian cancer cases.
Sex Cord Stromal Cell Tumors – This is cancer of the connective tissue that holds the ovaries together and also produces female sex hormones. This type of cancer is very rare and accounts for less than 5 percent of cases.

Risk Factors
There are certain things that increase your risk of getting ovarian cancer. These are:
  • Never having been pregnant during your childbearing years
  • Being in later life (over 50)
  • Having a family history of ovarian cancer or cancer of the rectum, colon, uterus or breast or a previous history of having any of those cancers
  • Using hormone replacement therapy (HRT) that is an estrogen-only product for more than 10 years
  • Ovarian stimulation for IVF procedures may increase the risk of borderline ovarian tumors, although more studies are needed
  • Being overweight with a body mass index of over 30
  • Having your first period when you are very young or having a late menopause
  • Having a history of endometriosis
  • Being Ashkenazi Jewish, Dutch, Polish, Icelandic, Norwegian or Pakistani.
This section contains information on the risk factors of ovarian cancer including parity, breastfeeding, infertility, fertility treatment, oral contraceptives, tubal ligation, hormone replacement therapy (HRT), talc, body mass index and height (BMI), ovarian cysts and endometriosis, medication usage, family history and smoking.
Ovarian cancer is sometimes referred to as the "silent killer" because women don’t always realize they have cancer until it has spread. Due to this, it has a high mortality rate.

However, the medical profession is working at reducing the death rate by helping women to recognize the early symptoms.

Early Warning Signs

If you develop irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms for the first time when you are over the age of 50, it may be ovarian cancer because it is unlikely that women over this age will get IBS for the first time.
Symptoms to look out for are:
  • Bloating or increased stomach size
  • Persistent stomach pain
  • Feeling full after only a small amount of food
  • Difficulty eating
  • Frequent urination or other urinary symptoms
  • Changes in your bowel habits
  • Back pain and/or excessive fatigue
Although similar, ovarian cancer symptoms are persistent, whereas IBS symptoms can come and go.

If you are over 50 and you suddenly develop these symptoms and they don’t go away, please see your doctor. It may be nothing to worry about, but he can at least rule out serious illnesses.


Treatment consists of surgery which will remove the cancer and radiation therapy in an attempt to try to kill off any leftover cancer cells and prevent them from coming back. This is called local therapy.

Sometimes chemotherapy may be offered, which will either be put into the abdomen and pelvis through a tube, taken by mouth, or injected into a vein.

Side effects of chemotherapy are varied, but can include:
  • Depletion of blood cells that help fight infection leaving you more vulnerable to infection
  • Hair loss
  • Appetite loss
  • Diarrhea
  • Sores on your lips or in your mouth
  • Nausea and/or vomiting
  • Joint pain
  • "Pins and needles’ or numbness in your hands or feet
  • Kidney damage
  • Hearing loss
Depending on your stage of cancer, your age and whether you wish to have children or not, you may be given surgery to remove your ovaries, fallopian tubes, uterus, lymph nodes and the omentum (a tissue layer that covers the intestines).

If you are young, have only stage 1 cancer and you want children, it may be possible to ask your surgeon to only remove one ovary and one fallopian tube, and to leave your uterus intact.

Post-operatively, you may be in some pain and may require painkillers for several days. It can take a few weeks to feel normal again and to be able to do your normal activities.

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