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Wednesday, 29 March 2017

Leaving The European Union But Not Leaving Europe

“We are leaving the European Union, but we are not leaving Europe” - PM Theresa May

UK’s PM Theresa May is expected to make a statement to MPs later at 1130GMT and finally trigger Brexit Article 50. According to previous consensus, the statement should lean to the conciliatory tone, calling all Britons to unite ahead of this historical moment.

“We will negotiate as one United Kingdom”

“We will control immigration so it serves the best our interests”

“We will seek a bold and constructive free-trade agreement with the EU, a deal that gives both British and European business the best conditions to operate in both territories”

“We will make sure that we build free-trade agreements with other countries besides the EU”

“It is our right to deliver a smooth and orderly Brexit”

“We understand that there will be consequences for the UK leaving the EU” “It is in the interests of both the UK and the EU that there is as little disruption as possible”

“Leaving the EU doesn’t mean we don’t share the European values”

“We will continue to be reliable partners with the EU”

Theresa May will call on the British people to unite as she triggers article 50, beginning a two-year process that will see the UK leave the European Union and sever a political relationship that has lasted 44 years.

Sunday, 19 March 2017

Crunchy Toast Could Give Your Cancer

Toasting your bread may cause DNA damage and raise your cancer risk, says new research.

Many people like to toast their bread to a crisp for their breakfast, but health experts warn that regularly overdoing it can increase the risk of cancer.

“The darker it is, the higher their acrylamide content,” explains food toxicologist Bernd Schaefer of the German Risk Assessment Institute, referring to a chemical compound suspected of being carcinogenic.

Research has proven the carcinogenic effects of acrylamide on animals, Schaefer notes, although no scientific studies have yet been carried out on humans.

Acrylamide is released when starchy foods that also contain the amino acid asparagine are heated to high temperatures.

The compound, which builds up when temperatures exceed about 120°C, is genotoxic, meaning it causes damage to a person’s DNA.

“We cannot establish a threshold below which it is safe,” Schaefer notes, admitting that experts don’t yet know exactly how dangerous it is.

If you eat dark toast once in a while, as an exception, you do not need to worry. “But if you regularly consume high quantities of acrylamide, there may be risks,” Schaefer explains.

It’s not just dark bread that could pose a health risk. Coffee may also contain varying amounts of acrylamide depending on the extent to which beans have been roasted. However, experts believe that other substances may counter that effect.

“We suspect that coffee also contains substances that provide some sort of protection against the effects of carcinogenic substances,” Schaefer said, citing a World Health Organization (WHO) study carried out last year.

Exactly how that works remains unclear, but research has so far spared coffee from any blame for cancer.

Friday, 17 March 2017

Stimulating Baby's senses for Brain Development

Stimulus and movement help with the development of a baby’s brain, lays the architecture for all future development and sets a baby up for a healthy, happy and well-coordinated body.  It is never too soon to start developing a baby’s senses.

The first three years of your baby’s life are critical for him to develop both physically and mentally. To optimise brain development, he will need to be constantly stimulated.

In a newborn, about 1.8 million synaptic connections are develo-ping per second, and whether these connections survive or wither away depends on the nature of the stimulation the baby receives.

The stimulation of the baby’s brain occurs through his senses, namely, his sense of touch, smell, vision, hearing and taste. Since the different areas of the brain correspond to different senses, whenever you stimulate his senses, you are also stimulating his brain.

Seeing is believing

When trying to engage with your baby, eye contact is very important. Studies have shown that babies naturally gravitate to look at a face that is looking at them, so if you look at him, he will look back at you for a longer time (compared to if you are looking away from him).

Looking at him with an animated or exaggerated expression (e.g. smiling, making faces, etc) helps to capture his attention for a longer time.

The power of scents

Your baby can smell you. Newborns have a strong sense of smell and instinctively know the scent of breast milk. That is why your baby will turn his head to mummy when he is hungry.

Newborns are just like adults – they will turn toward nice smells and will shy away from disagree-able ones.

Your baby will be soothed by smells that are familiar, such as a favourite blanket or pillow. He may even hang on to it until he is much older, as the smell helps to relieve any stress he feels.

A study showed that babies exposed to familiar smells cry less after a painful heel-stick procedure, compared to babies exposed to unfamiliar smells or placed in odourless areas. Crying was also reduced when any of these babies was exposed to a familiar smell.

Importance of touch

Studies have shown how children who receive a lot of care and attention, in the form of physical contact with their parents, turn out to be more resilient to pressure, frustration and stress.

There is also a positive impact on their cognitive functions when they grow up, e.g. they tend to be more sociable and turn out to be more skilled individuals.

Newborn babies who receive a lot of parental touch in their care also handle pain better, e.g. they cry less or for shorter periods.

Hear this

Research shows that babies generally preferred listening to human voices, especially mummy’s voice. Newborns can usually recognise mummy’s voice and will connect her voice with her face.

Preterm infants in hospital benefit from more exposure to their parents, and even a simple action such as talking, reading or singing them a lullaby, will help their growth and development.

Another study using a computed tomography (CT) scan showed that there was brain activity in the linguistic processing area of a child’s brain; this was markedly higher when the child heard mummy’s voice, as opposed to a stranger’s voice, or even lower when listening to music.

So, what’s the verdict?

Don’t be shy to talk, read or sing to baby! It doesn’t matter that he may not understand what you are saying, what is important is that he hears your voice.

Tasting the world

Babies love exploring the world with every sense at their disposal, so it should come as no surprise when they put things in their mouth!

On your part, take extra care to ensure that toys are clean and safe for baby, i.e. no small parts that may be swallowed or toxic substances such as lead-based paint.

When it comes to complementary foods, take the necessary precautions to ensure that the taste and texture are suitable for his age. Be vigilant and never give him foods that can cause choking such as whole sausages, meat/cheese chunks, grapes, large chunks of raw veggies or fruits, nuts, popcorn, hard candy, peanut butter, marshmallows or chewing gum.

At the same time, babies should be exposed to different textures, not only blended or mashed food.

How can you engage baby’s senses?

The perfect chance for your baby to experience a full sensory experience is during bath time and when you are giving him a massage:

• Vision – mummy’s full attention is on baby and this gives the both of you plenty of opportunity for eye contact.

• Smell – while there may be many fragranced products on the shelves, babies are attracted to the smell of their mother the most, so get close when giving your baby a bath or massage.

• Touch – as mummy gives him a bath/massage, the skin-to-skin contact helps soothe and comfort him.

• Hearing – talk, read or sing to baby as often as you can. Don’t worry, he won’t get bored and will probably keep asking for more!

• Taste – be adventurous and talk to your baby about taste. For instance, when you go grocery shopping, you can describe the flavours, colour, texture or taste of the foods that are on sale. Do the same once you start him on complementary foods.

Keep in mind that your baby experiences the world differently from you, so what you may find boring may be something that interests him and vice-versa.

For instance, you can use bold and colourful designs for his nursery/play-area. This helps him identify objects by sight as his eyesight develops.

You can also play simple games with him such as doing high-fives or simple clapping songs or games. This helps develop his hand-eye coordination and depth perception.

First fluorescent frog found in Argentina

The first naturally fluorescent frog was discovered recently in Argentina, almost by chance, a member of the team of researchers.

Argentine and Brazilian scientists at the Bernardino Rivadaiva Natural Sciences Museum made the discovery while studying the metabolic origin of pigments in a tree-frog species common to South America.

Under normal light the frog’s translucent skin is a muted yellowish-brown color with red dots, but when the scientists shone an ultraviolet light on it, it turned a celestial green.

According to one of them, Carlos Taboada, the case is “the first scientific record of a fluorescent frog.”

“We were very excited,” said his fellow researcher Julian Faivovich. “It was quite disconcerting.”

He said the discovery “radically modifies what is known about fluorescence in terrestrial environments, allowing the discovery of new fluorescent compounds that may have scientific or technological applications.”

It also “generates new questions about visual communication in amphibians,” he said.

The team studied some 200 more examples to ensure the phenomenon was not due to the frog’s captivity, and detected the fluorescent properties in all the specimens.

Maria Lagorio – an independent researcher and expert in fluorescence, who the research team contacted after the discovery , told that the trait is common in aquatic species and seen in some insects, “but has never been scientifically reported in amphibians.

The finding was recently published in Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
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